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Interactions between Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and its Monochamus vectors


Pine wilt disease in the forest



Funnel traps in Portugal


REPHRAME field trip to Lisbon


Field trip to Lisbon



Trap logs for Monochamus galloproincialis


Pine wood nematode - bursaphelenchus xylophilus



m.galloprovincialis larva


m.galloprovincialis larva


PWD in pinus pinaster, Madeira



PWD symptoms in pinus pinaster, Madeira


Maritime pinus pinaster, Madeira


Maritime pinus pinaster, Madeira



Rephrame Toolkit schematic 1


Rephrame Toolkit - management module



Map showing the spread of pine wood nematode



Rephrame Toolkit - modelling module


PWN toolkit - detection module



Flow diagram - detection and identification of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus


Microscope images of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus


Identification of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus extracted from wood and bark



Identification chart for Bursaphelenchus xylophilus





Monochamus galloprovincialis



Pine wilt disease


PTK - survey module




Survey work looking for Monochamus galloprovincialis


Rephrame partners in Lisbon


Trapping Monochamus galloprovincialis



Field visit - Portugal


Chemical control, Portugal



Chemical control of Pwn - close up


Monochamus gallopvincialis trap, Portugal



Trap logs



Monochamus galloprovincialis - adult


Checking for signs of Monochamus galloprovincialis, Portugal





B. xylophilius plate

B. xylophilius plate
Fig. 2.[italic:Bursaphelenchus xylophilus].[small: A: Light micrograph (LM) of anterior region; B: LM of vulval region; C: LM of male tail; insert: scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of bursa; D: LM of female tail; E: SEM of protracted spicule and cucullus; F: SEM of female tail tip (from Penas et al., 2004)]

B. xylophilus (Source Jon Eisenback)

B. xylophilus (Source Jon Eisenback)


B. xylophilus female showing vulva.

B. xylophilus female showing vulva.
Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Posterior area of female showing vulva and vulval flap.

B. xylophilus male spicule

B. xylophilus male spicule
Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Posterior area of male showing spicule.

Bx female showing vulval flap

Bx female showing vulval flap
Scanning electron micrograph of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus female showing vulval flap.


Bx male spicule

Bx male spicule
Scanning electron micrograph of detached male spicule of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

Chipping wood to control PWN spread

Chipping wood to control PWN spread
Chipping wood to control PWN spread

Culturing on agar plates

Culturing on agar plates
Growing PWN on Botrytis fungus on agar plates.


Egg-laying site

Egg-laying site

Extraction PWN

Extraction PWN
Assessing Monochamus galloprovincialis for presence of PWN. Grinding whole adult beetles.

Field Collection

Field Collection
Taking drill samples of wood from trees to assess for presence of PWN in the laboratory


Field Collection

Field Collection
Taking drill samples of wood from trees to assess for presence of PWN in the laboratory

Field Collection of wood samples

Field Collection of wood samples
Taking drill samples of wood from trees to assess for presence of PWN in the laboratory

Honduras pine

Honduras pine


Jorge Faria

Jorge Faria

Lab processing (Baermann funnel technique)

Lab processing (Baermann funnel technique)
Extraction of nematodes from wood samples using Baermann funnel technique.

Lab processing using Whitehead tray immersion

Lab processing using Whitehead tray immersion
Extraction of nematodes from wood samples using Whitehead tray immersion technique.


Moisture meter for testing wood

Moisture meter for testing wood
Moisture meter for testing wood

Monochamus larva (mature)

Monochamus larva (mature)
Mature larva of Monochamus galloprovincialis

Monochamus tree preferences

Monochamus tree preferences


Pine wilt

Pine wilt
Pine trees with strong symptoms of pine wilt disease caused by PWN. Note the red foliage.

Pine wilt

Pine wilt
Pine trees with strong symptoms of pine wilt disease caused by PWN. Note the red foliage.

Pine wilt, Portugal

Pine wilt, Portugal
Pine trees with strong symptoms of pine wilt disease caused by PWN. Note the red foliage.


Pine wilt, Portugal

Pine wilt, Portugal
Pine trees with strong symptoms of pine wilt disease caused by PWN. Note the red foliage.

Predicted wilt expression using climate data for 2009

Predicted wilt expression using climate data for 2009

Predicted wilt expression using climate data for 2010

Predicted wilt expression using climate data for 2010


Preparing trap log

Preparing trap log

PWN Schematic diagram

PWN Schematic diagram

Section showing Monochamus feeding gallery

Section showing Monochamus feeding gallery
Cross section of Pinus pinaster showing larval feeding gallery of Monochamus galloprovincialis


Tree bark

Tree bark

Trunk with Monochamus feeding gallery

Trunk with Monochamus feeding gallery
Section of Pinus pinaster trunk to show larval feeding gallery of Monochamus galloprovincialis

Virginia pine

Virginia pine


     
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